DeepBee is a project that aims to assist in the assessment of honey bee colonies using image processing and machine learning.


Paper: Automatic detection and classification of honey bee comb cells using deep learning


How to install?

Windows executable

You can download the windows executables from this page. You need to choose between the CPU or GPU version based on your computing resources.

From source

conda env create -f environment.yml

How to use?

Detecting and classifying the cells

Visualising the predictions

You can find the classification’s output within the folder /DeepBee/output/labeled_images or:

Interacting with the visualization tool

Once you have the visualization tool open you can interact with it as follows:

N - Next image;

P - Previous image;

V - Toggle detections;

keys 1 to 7 - Defines the cell class to be added or changed;

keys 1 to 7 + mouse click - Changes the cells class;

A - Add cell;

Mouse click on a cell - Also toggles a red dot in the center of the cell. Cells without the red dot can be used to retrain the model;

D - Remove cell;

Space - Enables moving mode;

R - Enables region selection. Select the region using the mouse;

BackSpace - Resets changes;

S - Save changes;

Esc - Quit;

Exporting the predictions to a CSV file

Retraining the model




Thiago S. Alves, M. Alice Pinto, Paulo Ventura, Cátia J. Neves, David G. Biron, Arnaldo C. Junior, Pedro L. De Paula Filho, Pedro J. Rodrigues,
Automatic detection and classification of honey bee comb cells using deep learning,
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture,
Volume 170,
ISSN 0168-1699,
Abstract: In a scenario of worldwide honey bee decline, assessing colony strength is becoming increasingly important for sustainable beekeeping. Temporal counts of number of comb cells with brood and food reserves offers researchers data for multiple applications, such as modelling colony dynamics, and beekeepers information on colony strength, an indicator of colony health and honey yield. Counting cells manually in comb images is labour intensive, tedious, and prone to error. Herein, we developed a free software, named DeepBee©, capable of automatically detecting cells in comb images and classifying their contents into seven classes. By distinguishing cells occupied by eggs, larvae, capped brood, pollen, nectar, honey, and other, DeepBee© allows an unprecedented level of accuracy in cell classification. Using Circle Hough Transform and the semantic segmentation technique, we obtained a cell detection rate of 98.7%, which is 16.2% higher than the best result found in the literature. For classification of comb cells, we trained and evaluated thirteen different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, including: DenseNet (121, 169 and 201); InceptionResNetV2; InceptionV3; MobileNet; MobileNetV2; NasNet; NasNetMobile; ResNet50; VGG (16 and 19) and Xception. MobileNet revealed to be the best compromise between training cost, with ~9 s for processing all cells in a comb image, and accuracy, with an F1-Score of 94.3%. We show the technical details to build a complete pipeline for classifying and counting comb cells and we made the CNN models, source code, and datasets publicly available. With this effort, we hope to have expanded the frontier of apicultural precision analysis by providing a tool with high performance and source codes to foster improvement by third parties (
Keywords: Cell classification; Apis mellifera L.; Semantic segmentation; Machine learning; Deep learning; DeepBee software

This research was funded through the 2013-2014 BiodivERsA/FACCE-JPI Joint call for research proposals, with the national funders FCT (Portugal), CNRS (France), and MEC (Spain).